- Research Article
- Open Access
Joint Angle and Frequency Estimation Using Multiple-Delay Output Based on ESPRIT
© Wang Xudong. 2010
- Received: 29 August 2010
- Accepted: 21 December 2010
- Published: 28 December 2010
This paper presents a novel ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output (MDJAFE). The algorithm can estimate the joint angles and frequencies, since the use of multiple output makes the estimation accuracy greatly improved when compared with a conventional algorithm. The useful behavior of the proposed algorithm is verified by simulations.
- Joint Angle
- Channel State Information
- Frequency Estimation
- Angle Estimation
- Eigenvalue Decomposition
Antenna array has been used in many fields such as radar, sonar, electron reconnaissance and seismic data processing. The direction-of-arrival- (DOA-) estimation of signals impinging on an array of sensors is a fundamental problem in array processing [1–5]. Angle estimation and frequency estimation [6, 7] are two key problems in the signal processing field. The problem of joint DOA and frequency estimation arises in the applications of radar, wireless communications and electron reconnaissance. For example, these parameters can be applied to locate the radars and to locate pilot tones in electron reconnaissance systems . Furthermore, a precise estimation of these parameters is helpful to attain a better pulse descriptor word (PDW) and thus enhances the system performance. Optimal techniques based on maximum likelihood  are often applicable but might be computationally prohibitive. Some ESPRIT-based joint angle and frequency estimation methods have been proposed in [10–14]. Zoltowski and Mathew  discuss this problem in the context of radar applications. Pro-ESPRIT is proposed to estimate angle and frequency. Haardt and Nossek  discuss the problem in the context of mobile communications for space division multiple access applications. Their method is based on Unitary-ESPRIT, which involves a certain transformation of the data to real valued matrices. Multi resolution ESPRIT is used for joint angle frequency estimation in . ESPRIT method is used for frequency and angle estimation under uniform circular array in [13, 14]. References [15, 16] proposed the trilinear decomposition method for joint angle and frequency estimation method. The other joint angle and frequency estimation method is proposed in [17–24].
This paper uses multiple-delay output, so as to achieve the purpose of improving estimation accuracy. This algorithm has the improved performance compared with conventional method. The proposed algorithm is applicable to uniform linear array.
We denote by the matrix transpose, and by the matrix conjugate transpose. The notation refers to the Moore-Penrose inverse (pseudoinverse).
where , .
where is a full-rank matrix.
3.1. Frequency Estimation
where angle denotes taking the phase angles.
3.2. Angle Estimation
where , .
In contrast to ESPRIT algorithm , this algorithm has a high computational load, which is usually dominated by formation of the covariance matrix, matrix inversion and calculation of EVD. The major computational complexity of this algorithm is , while ESPRIT requires , where , , , and are the number of antennas, delays, snapshots, and sources.
We present Monte Carlo simulations that are used to assess the angle and frequency estimation performance of MDJAFE algorithm. The number of Monte Carlo trials is 1000. Note that is the number of antennas; is the number of the delays; is the number of snapshots; is the number of the sources.
Define , where is the estimated angle/frequency, and is the perfect angle/ frequency.
This work presents a new ESPRIT algorithm-based joint angle and frequency estimation using multiple-delay output. The advantage of this proposed algorithm using the multiple-delay output over the conventional algorithm is that the estimation accuracy has been greatly improved.
This paper is supported by China NSF Grant (60801052), Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (2009ZC52036), Ph.D. Programs Foundation of China's Ministry of Education (200802871056) and Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics Research Funding (NS2010109, NS2010114). The authors thank Professor Zhang Xiaofei for his help.
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